► Land burial. This method is like a time bomb because it takes decades for some wastes to decompose and the waste storage are usually meant for 20 years of usage. Recalcitrant connections such as residues of heavy metals or bacteria settle to the ground and slowly poison it. This leads to the explosion of diseases and disables the use of lands for a long time.
► Direct combustion. This technology is quite expensive, although it produces energy that can be used for further production. Combustion causes emission of toxic substances into the ozone layer. The refuse burnout received is toxic and requires special storages for it can't be stored in common dumpsite.
► Digestion (fermentation). Waste is loaded into closed tanks where its biothermal decay with no access of oxygen takes place. Methane-producing bacteria convert raw material into methane, carbon dioxide and water. The collected biogas can then be used as fuel or fertilizer. However, such processing takes much time and at long last only 40-50% of biomass is converted into biogas.
► Composting. Manure can be used as fertilizer. Sometimes organic matter is pre-fermented in bioreactors. To use these fertilizers in agriculture in future, they must be strictly sorted by type. If toxic or inorganic substances get to such waste – this method becomes dangerous. The unsorted manure is used only for garbage composting on dumpsites.